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Wine Production was first seen 6,000 years ago. But it wasn’t until 1857 that Pasteur correctly described the science behind fermentation and Wine Production.

Because crushed grapes contain all that is needed to create wine, ancient wine producers simply allowed nature to take its course. As time went on, people realized that by intervening at certain times, they could make a wine with more predictable characteristics.

Red & White Wine Production

One of the first things they realized was that red wine production required that the grapes be fermented in contact with their skins. This gives the wine color and body. In contrast, most white wine production does not occur in contact with the grape skins. Whites are valued for their fresh fruit characteristics, and skin contact would impart unwanted bitter tannins.

Sparking Wine Production

Sparkling wine production is a complex process that has been honed for centuries in the Champagne region of France. A number of California producers also use these traditional Wine Production methods. It undergoes a second fermentation in the bottle, trapping carbon dioxide and giving it bubbles.

Fortified Wine Production

Fortified wines have a spirit added to them which is usually Brandy. Fortified wine production can make either sweet or dry wines. If the spirit is added during fermentation, some residual sugar will remain in the wine and a Port will result. If the spirit is added at the end of fermentation, a dry Sherry will be made.

Sweet Wine Production

There are a number of sweet styles made in California using a many different Wine Production techniques. Grapes affected by botrytis cinerea or “noble rot” make deeply concentrated wines with high residual sugar. Another technique vintners can use is harvesting the grapes very late in the season and using them for sweet wine production.

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